Academic articles

Health Database

The Health Database is a growing resource of papers and journals which discuss the links between health and housing. Resources are Australian and International. For suggestions to contributions to this list please contact us at
  • External Sources
  • Online Press // Articles
  • Books // Journals // Reports // Conference Papers
  • Policies // Indicators // Manuals

External Sources

Housing for Health – The Guide – Health Resources

All of Healthabitat’s work is based on the Healthy Living Practices (HLPs). These are prioritised on the basis of existing public health knowledge and their likely impact on health status. A regularly updated health database is available on Housing for Health – The Guide.


Housing for Health Incubator

Like many issues in Indigenous Australia, the challenge of decent housing and infrastructure remains ‘unfinished business’. It is both constantly in the news and yet, in terms of interdisciplinary research, largely ignored. It is a wicked social policy issue in danger of being placed in limbo, with inactivity and loss of past knowledge about what works allowing expertise to whither, the neglect disguised by a plethora of reviews and reports. This research incubator aims to turn that around.


NSW Health

Research has highlighted environmental health conditions, particularly the failure of existing housing and health infrastructure on many Aboriginal communities, as being an important contributor to the higher rates of infection, injuries and chronic disease in Aboriginal people.


Online Press // Articles

T. Clement, March 2020, ‘This is not a wicked problem”: Healthabitat is making housing better for Australia’s Indigenous communities ’, Foreground

Some problems are so complex we label them ‘wicked.’ As the Australian Public Service Commission (APS) explains, “The term ‘wicked’ in this context is used, not in the sense of evil, but rather as an issue highly resistant to resolution.” In a document titled, ‘Tackling wicked problems: A public policy perspective,’ the APS, a policy unit within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, cites climate change, obesity, land degradation and Indigenous disadvantage as examples.

N. Vanovac and S.Wellington, October 2017, ‘Remote Indigenous Housing scheme lacking transparency, poorly managed, review finds ’, ABC News

The article addresses the Remote Housing Review, examines the National Partnership Agreement on Remote Indigenous Housing (NPARIH) and the Remote Housing Strategy from 2008 to 2018. The review criticises the national Indigenous remote housing scheme for poor governance, lack of transparency, and being hampered by constant changing policies. The review states that more had to be done to adhere to the severe housing shortages and had evidence that maintenance to many existing dwellings desperately requiring services were not receiving any progress fast enough and concerns that opportunities were not consistently available for local workers.

R. Cadden, October 2014, Conference hears a damning critique of Indigenous housing program’, reports from the CRANAplus conference, Melbourne

Health journalist Rosemary, interviews Paul Pholeros about HealtHabitat’s work in determining whether government expenditure on indigenous housing was used adequately. The article raises serious concerns about the government’s housing initiative program, with a budget of $5.5Bil. For the houses that received upgrades, a standardised test revealed that the houses showed no improvement, but rather went backwards in their ability to function. The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet were asked to respond to this article. No response was received.

M. Ward, October 2011, ‘Interview: Healthabitat’s Paul Pholeros ’, Australian Design Review, 3rd October 2011

Ward interviews Paul Pholeros with some topics focusing on details about HealtHabitat’s prefabricated wet room, the particular modus operandi driven by empirical data evidence, and the issues of crowding and healthy hardware surrounding sanitation and hygiene. Discussions also arise about obstacles faced on-site with climate and habitat variations and how they can be overcome.

P. Pholeros, September/October 2011, ‘Healthabitat: Improving health through housing repair ’, Border Crossings: Expanding the reach and role of architects, Architecture Bulletin Magazine, p. 10-11

Paul describes HealtHabitat’s later achievements in developing and deploying a ‘clip-on’ prefabricated shower, laundry and toilet unit prototype for Indigenous communities that respond to the four highest-priority Healthy Living Practices of the nine principles identified by the National Indigenous Housing Guide

V. Laurie, June 2011, ‘Home Improvement: Indigenous Housing ’, Essays, The Monthly Magazine, published by Schwartz Media

Laurie follows Paul Pholeros through the town of Santa Teresa, Alice Springs and gives an eyewitness account of HealtHabitat’s Survey Fix 1 program in action. The article cross-references local, state and federal government schemes for home improvement, with the exceptional drawback that these schemes are still installing poor quality hardware and avoiding addressing major important healthy living practices items, such as drainage in wet areas, unsafe electrical wirings, and roof corrosion, just to name a few.

P. Johns, September 2010, ‘Humanitarian: Solomon Islands, East Timor, India, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Nepal, Liberia ’, Vol. 99, No. 5, Architecture Australia Magazine

Peter Johns surveys the humanitarian and aid work being undertaken in South East Asia by Australian Architects. He looks at HealtHabitat’s work in Nepal, providing sanitation, waste removal and better ventilated cooking systems to the overpopulated, low-caste town of Bhattendande.

B. Quinlivan, March 2010, ‘Breathing Life’, Making a Contribution in Indigenous Health, Radius Magazine

In this article, Beth investigates the striking success stories produced by the combined efforts of and the Nganampa Health Council and Paul Torzillo (now Director of NHC). Beth follows Paul’s story working as a respiratory and intensive care physician, helping to target NHC’s health program for 20+ years. Paul states, “These are enormously tough problems of social policy. Aboriginal health needs the smartest minds, the best evidence, rigorous thinking and a lot of work”

S. Williams, August 2010, ‘Plumbing the Depths of Simple Home Repair ’, newspaper article, Inquirer, p. 5, The Australian Newspaper 28th-29th August 2010

Sue narrates the internal life stories of indigenous people living in remote communities in South Australia. The article introduces HealtHabitat’s Indigenous housing work, unravelling reasons behind poor housing conditions and transforming the lives of 50,000 indigenous.

E. Farrelly, November 2009, A Shamed Nation Turns a Blind Eye, The Sydney Morning Herald

Elizabeth writes about the horrifying truths surrounding high populations of Indigenous youth suffering eye disease in the town of Katherine, Australia. Despite governments spending millions of dollars every year, their strategies go astray, avoiding the real reasons for causing such health issues; that is hygiene and housing, to name a few. With statistics reading worse than some third world countries, Elizabeth highlights the embarrassment and shame of government initiatives still getting it wrong.

C. Go-Sam, September/October 2008, ‘Indigenous design paradigms; working with and against indigenous design paradigms ’, Vol. 97, No. 5, Architecture Australia Magazine

Carroll Go-Sam discusses three design paradigms developed over the past thirty years, and the effects they have on Indigenous housing, with a particular focus on cultural design, environmental health and housing-as-process. Her essay investigates how all three of these design paradigms may compliment the other, and what approaches we need to take to further understand the variety of Aboriginal domiciliary behaviour.

2006, ‘On House and Housing’ and ‘House and Home in Indigenous Australia ’, article, p. 9-10, and p. 14-15, published in Our Place Magazine: People Working with Technology in Remote Communities, No. 28, by the Centre for Appropriate Technology Inc., ACT

J. Ryan, 2005, ‘Onsite Testing of Water: A Field Trial ’, article, Case Studies Index, Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy

2004, ‘The Fixing Houses for Better Health Program ’, article written in ‘Water Issues in Communities’, WA Aboriginal Housing Infrastructure Council News, Summer 2004, Issue No. 3, p. 8

P. Memmott, January/February 2004, ‘Aboriginal Housing: Has the State of the Art Improved ?’, Radar Essay, Architecture Australia Magazine

March 2002, ‘A Summary of Public Health Laws of Relevance to Remote and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities, National Public Health Partnership

P. Pholeros, July/August 2002, ‘Fixing Houses for Better Health ’, article, Architecture Australia

V. Taylor, 2001, ‘Health Hardware for Housing for Rural and Remote Indigenous Communities ’, Rural and Remote Environmental Health, Volume 1, published by the Australasian College of Tropical Medicine, p. 42-49

P. Torzillo, G. W. McCaughan, 2000, ‘Hepatitis A, Liver transplants and Indigenous Communities ’, Editorial, MJA, Hospital in the Home: Principles and Practice

P. Pholeros, ‘Treating the Cause, not the Symptoms 

Addressing the Environmental Determinants of Health ’, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute

Books // Journals // Reports // Conference Papers

This report summarises the Healthy Homes Monitoring and Evaluation Project undertaken by Menzies School of Health Research from July 2021 until June 2023. Menzies was contracted by the Department of Territory Families, Housing and Communities (TFHC) to monitor and evaluate ‘Healthy Homes’, the Department’s remote housing repairs and maintenance program.

November 2021, Sustainable Indigenous housing in regional and remote Australia, AHURI Report NO. 368

This report produced by The Housing for Health Incubator, explores what is required for sustainable Indigenous housing in regional and remote Australia. The report covers a broad range of content over its chapters, from life-cycle costing, repairs and maintenance programs, Housing Repairs and maintenance data and costs and modelling of climate change forecasting to important anticipated impacts on housing performance due to climate change.

Global Handwashing Partnership, 2020, ‘The Handwashing Handbook‘, Report

A report detailing known research on handwashing and it’s benefits in limiting the spread of infectious disease.

P. Pholeros, T. Lea, 2010, ‘This Is Not a Pipe: The Treacheries of Indigenous Housing ’, Public Culture, photo essay, published by Duke University Press, Edition 22: p. 187-209

A. Etmanski, September 2010, ‘No survey without service – Tips for Solution Based Advocacy ’, blog post

May 2010, ‘Building a Better Future: Australian Housing Ministers ’ Ten Year Statement of New Directions for Indigenous Housing’, Housing Ministers’ Conference

Outlines the proceedings of the Housing Ministers’ Conference adopting a new policy of “Safe, Healthy and Sustainable Housing for Indigenous Australians”, a ten-year statement of new directions for Indigenous housing. The policy came out of an understanding that the quality of Indigenous Housing is inadequate and the need for more houses and repairs to existing houses be made.

T. Lea, 2008, ‘Housing for Health in Indigenous Australia: Driving Change when research and Policy are Part of the Problem ’, Human Organization, Vol. 67, No. 1

D. Baker, E. Charlesworth, G. Lee, T. Grice, D. Morris, March 2008, ‘Towards A Design Framework for Remote Indigenous Housing, AHURI Final Report No. 114, published by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Limited, Melbourne

This report contains a policy-orientated synthesis of the disparate contributions to remote Indigenous housing from the design, policy and public health literature as grounded and tested in fieldwork in three sample communities in different parts of Australia. The study observations and interviews integrated concerns for social wellbeing and stability, cultural values and imperatives, economic development, training and employment opportunities, and respect for economic viability, geographic influences and eco-efficiency in housing designs. Mentioned is FHBH credo application, ‘no survey without service’ and HealtHabitat’s application of anthropological research to culturally appropriate house design

P. J. Torzillo, February 2008, ‘The state of health hardware in Aboriginal communities in rural and remote Australia ’, Australian New Zealand Journal of Public Health 32:7-11

October 2007, ‘Which Way?: Directions in Indigenous Housing, A National Conference Shaping the Future of Housing for Indigenous Communities ’, Conference Proceedings, Araluen Arts Centre, Alice Springs, published by the Royal Institute of Architects, Melbourne

The Conference papers address key issues surrounding home ownership, appropriate housing design and construction, ongoing maintenance and upgrading of existing housing, and the direct impact of housing on the health and well-being of Indigenous communities. HealtHabitat associated speaking participants included; Paul Pholeros, Grahame Morris, Paul Torzillo, Ross Bailie. Paul facilitate a talk on Session 2: Building for Today or Tomorrow?: Directions from 20 years of Housing for Health, using 7 years of detailed data to reinforce and provide better direction for future housing. Here Paul asserts the requirement for; functionality scores on ‘Critical Healthy Living Practices’, the improvements to the ‘National Indigenous Housing Guide’, and the ‘National Indigenous Standards Forum’.

P. Pholeros, T. McPeake, 2006, ‘Fixing houses for better health in remote communities ’, Australian Social Policy, published by the former Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaCSIA)

SGS, 2006, ‘Evaluation of Fixing Houses for Better Health Projects 2, 3, and 4 ’, Occasional Paper No. 14, SGS Economics and Planning in conjunction with Tallegalla Consultants Pty Ltd, published by the Australian Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaCSIA)

This paper is a performance evaluation of the FHBH Projects and their objectives. In this report, outlined are detailed findings, conclusions and recommendations for future FHBH Projects. Five communities are assessed as case studies, to achieve variability in physical and social context. The report found that FHBH fixed a number of significant (the most critical) problems over an average of 6-month period between Survey Fix 1 and Survey Fix 2. Despite these significant improvements, problems remained with structural elements of the houses (for example, egress associated with escaping from fires), bathing children, and storing and preparing food. The financial analysis concluded that $5,000/house was not a sufficient amount of expenditure to achieve an objective of 80-100% house fixed rate, but rather the amount of $12,000/house was deemed necessary.

G. Lee, Morris. D, April 2005, ‘Best Practice Models for Effective Consultation Towards Improving Built Environment Outcomes for Remote Indigenous Communities: Final Report ’, Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Southern Research Centre

Looks at the social and cultural acceptations in the built environments, looking at standardised housing, infrastructure and planning practices. The report highlights and the differential application towards non-indigenous and indigenous communities, in that standardised planning and housing, is not necessarily suitable or appropriate for diverse cultural, gender, age and extended family structures evident in Aboriginal communities. The report mentions the National Indigenous Housing Guide and its dislocated adoption into housing and infrastructure providers.

D. Foster, J. Mitchell, J. Ulrik, R. Williams, 2005, ‘Desert Knowledge CRC: Population and Mobility in the Town Camps of Alice Springs ’, A report prepared by Tangentyere Council Research Unit, Report 9

The report aims to develop and disseminate an understanding of sustainable living in remote desert environments, examine regional economies and livelihoods and create the networks to market knowledge in other desert lands. The research looks at desert town populations by conducting precedential surveys of improved quality data collection about Aboriginal people for non-Aboriginal people. These surveys use an Aboriginal research process to know the people, live the context, speak the language and understand the complexities of the issue in a way that an external researcher might not.

CRC 2006, 2008, 2009, ‘CRC for Aboriginal Health: Annual Reports, Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health, Menzies School of Health Research

The CRCAH Annual Report on building an indigenous health and research workforce. Information about their objectives, governance, structure, management, research overview, priorities and findings, a communications program, education and training, and international collaborations.

2006, ‘Annual Report ’, published the Nganampa Health Council

The NHC Annual Report is an updated account of the health organisations comprehensive primary health care services. The report outlines their yearly objectives, management/governance/structure, fields of work/attention and research overview, priorities and findings, communication programs and information systems, risk management and maintenance, finances, and resources.

HMAC, October 2005, ‘Indigenous Housing Needs 2005: A Multi-Measure Needs Model ’, published by the Australian Government Institute of Health and Welfare

This report assesses the extent of indigenous housing needs and the feasibility of including another three dimensions to the needs model, similar to the successful precedent referral of the Neutze, Sanders & Jones (2000) report. The suggested approach for indigenous housing is to investigate each dimension of need, (e.g. Crowding, poor dwelling conditions) separately by housing tenure rather than to restrict the analysis to the social housing programs only. The report stresses the need for a more comprehensive picture to emerge, whereby the associations between various measures are better understood so that households with multiple housing needs can be identified and given priority.

A. Day, P. Pholeros, J. Tregenza, September 2005, ‘Feasibility of a Low Level Security Correctional Facility for Traditional Aboriginal Offenders – APY Lands ’, A report for the Department for Correctional Services, South Australia

A report on the testing and requirements by the Royal Commission and the South Australian Department for Correctional Services proposal for a low-level security correctional facility, attempting to minimise the rising aboriginal deaths in custody. The report factors in variables such as population numbers, rehabilitation, location, design and construction, and risks. Paul recommends a modular construction system that can be easily transported and erected, due to the remoteness of the location, lack of builders experience and therefore issues surrounding quality control. Paul explains how this method paves way for significant improvements to quality, thermal performance, access, accuracy and reduced waste. The report concludes that the benefits of housing only male adult offenders, and operating along cultural lines, offers real opportunity to manage Aboriginal offenders more appropriately and to support their reintegration into the community.

TSC, July 2005, ‘Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators ’, Chapter 10: Effective Environmental Health Systems, The Steering Committee, Australian Productivity Commission

Measures the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and examines whether policies and programs are achieving positive outcomes for Indigenous Australians. Chapter 10 investigates health conditions and the rates of diseases and the key environmental influences impacting these health statistics. The environmental impacts covered include access to clean water, functional sewerage and appropriate housing conditions, and overcrowded housing. These sometimes referred to as Health Hardware. access to clean water, functional sewerage and appropriate housing conditions, and overcrowded housing. These sometimes referred to as Health Hardware.

R. Bailie, N. Gray, G. Henderson, K. Wayte, September 2004, ‘Framework for Research on Aboriginal Health and the Physical Environment ’, Final Report, Research Framework, Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health

This research framework is intended as a guide to assist the development of a focused, strategic, research, program priorities in relation to Aboriginal health and the physical environment. The paper endeavours to understand Aboriginal people’s perceptions and behaviour in relation to the physical environment, as well as understanding the determinant and relationships between environmental factors and health outcomes. It is used as a guide to enhance the development and assess it’s potential contribution to policy, planning and the delivery of services of programs and interventions.

T. Barnes, R. Griew, P. Hill, A. Ritchie, C. Shannon, J. Wakerman, 2003, ‘Achievements in Health Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander: Summary Report ’, Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal and Tropical Health on behalf of the Standing Committee on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

This report is a critical analysis of the achievements in Aboriginal health to include primary secondary and tertiary health care and other sectors relevant to health outcomes. The report outlines a framework for measuring the success of programs, highlighting successful projects to understand the relationships between them and how and why they have been successful. It’s objective is to inform health policy and planning decision makers about the critical factors of these successful programs and to stress the need for continued development of a policy framework, and for a more comprehensive monitoring and data evaluation to be conducted and recorded.

2003, ‘Environment Healthy Living Practices in Indigenous Houses ’, NSW Chief Health Officer Report

In part with the Housing for Health Program, this surveyed report reveals data on Healthy Living Practices when introduced for the first time as a new indicator. The data represents two surveys conducted on 492 houses in remote communities in NSW surrounding key areas of safety (electrical, gas, structural and fire).

P. Memmott, August 2003, ‘Take 2: Housing Design in Indigenous Australia ’, chapter 6, ‘Housing for Health, or Designing to Get Water In and Shit Out’ by Paul Pholeros, published by the Royal Institute of Architects, Red Hill, ACT

In an extracted chapter from Take 2, Paul writes that a design process for a house should first and foremost include a healthy living environment. Paul illustrates the necessity for adjusted preliminary thinking with real successful examples; the Housing for Health and Fixing Housing for Better Health projects. These projects are designed to enable a healthy living environment through 10 Health living practices; Safety, Washing bodies, washing clothes and bedding, removing wastewater safely, improving nutrition, reducing crowding, reducing harmful contact between animals, insects, vermin and people, dust control, temperature control, and reducing or preventing injuries.

M. Anda, A. Jardine-Orr, N. McGrath, F. Spring, May 2003, ‘Indigenous Housing and Governance: Case Studies from Remote Communities in WA and NT ’, chapter 2.4, ‘Housing Design, Essential Services and Town Planning Issues’, published by the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, Western Australia Research Centre

This extracted piece examines the differences in the nature of community control, ownership and management of housing and how these contribute to asset management in remote indigenous communities. Healthabitat is mentioned as having a profound influence on housing design policy in Australia. Their work brought the intention of the state housing authorities in 1995, which resulted in the National Framework for the design, construction and maintenance of Indigenous Housing (National Indigenous Housing Design Guide), 1999. Also added, are the achievements which led to Fixing Houses for Better Health, for indigenous housing to receive funded assistance, contributing to better assets management in a whole government approach system.

B. Hardy, 2002, ‘A Report on Simple, Low cost, Effective House Survey and Repair Programs in the Northern Territory, Australia ’, Katherine West Health Board, Katherine, Northern Territory, Journal of Rural and Remote Environmental Health, published by Warwick Educational Publishing Inc.

This report represents collated data, across 2-4 years, 3 communities, and of individual houses with a comparable survey, analysis to assess house functionality. These studies set up a foundation of reliable measure for performance to determine house function status for the accumulation and redirection of public funds and expenditure on health and welfare.

R. Bailie, N. Main, M. Stevens, 2002, ‘Environmental Health Survey Year 2 Evaluation and Supplementary Report: Improving Housing Outcomes for Indigenous Territorians ’, Indigenous Housing Authority of the Northern Territory, supported by the Cooperation Research Centre for Aboriginal and Tropical Health, CRC, and Menzies School of Health Research

The survey evaluation of the Indigenous Housing Authority (1995) is the second survey conducted investigating the condition of housing infrastructure. Findings were evaluated to examine whether areas of the house had improved or deteriorated since previous findings and where priority areas lie.

R. Bailie, B. Hoffmann, November 2001, ‘Proposed Health Service Zones: Health-Related Housing and Infrastructure in Northern Territory Aboriginal Communitie s’, published by the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal and Tropical Health, Northern Territory, Australia

This report presents a detailed analysis of primary health care reform and health-related community infrastructure in the Northern Territory. It represents data extrapolated from 131 communities, equivalent to a population of ~40,000 people (19% of all NT communities). Collected data was accumulated on categories such as water, electricity, sewage, dwellings, public phones, accessibility, primary school, hospital, health care, access to health professionals and programs, ponding, and rubbish collection.

June 2000, ‘Indigenous Funding Inquiry Submission ’, Commonwealth Grants Commission, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission

This submission is an examination into the operations and structure of the Murdi Paaki Regional Housing Corporation Limited (MPRHCL) as a precedent model for other organisations to consider and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their own housing. The ATSIC looks at strategies for streamlining asset management, engaged with Healthabitat to manage the Fixing Houses for Better Health project; an on the spot assessment of the state of repair of houses and provision of urgently required maintenance.

R. Bailie, M. Runcie, July 2000, ‘Evaluation of Environmental Health Survey Data: Indigenous Housing ’, Menzies School of Health Research, Northern Territory

An evaluation of surveyed data for issues surrounding the level of functionality of environmental health infrastructure, identification of areas of greatest needs, generation of repair and maintenance records and other related issues. A total of 3906 houses were assessed as either, ‘item not present’, ‘no maintenance’, to ‘urgent maintenance required’. This approach addressed the questions of whether there were facilities easily available to allow people to perform six standard living practices of washing people, washing clothes, performing ablutions, removing wastewater, removing waste rubbish, and preparing and storing food. The analysis indicated that functionality of these facilities ranged between 31 and 59% for surveyed houses.

July 1997, ‘Emergent Paradigms in Design Education: Sustainability, Collaboration & Community ’, UNSW Conference, Faculty of the Built Environment, UNSW

Paul Pholeros provokes emerging design pedagogies by investigating sustainability, collaboration and community education in his paper, ‘Learning from the Great Unmade Places of Australia’. The paper presents stories from a collection of places and projects around Australia, recognising the unique aspects of the Australian environment and how to sustain them. He proposes a brief to improve the environment and health of all citizens to dispel mythologies and incorporate fundamental connections between the people and places.

A.Mahmic, E. R. Tovey, March 1993, ‘Mites, Asthma and Domestic Design: A conference to explore the potential of domestic design to reduce the prevalence and severity of asthma in Australia ’, published by the Department of Medicine, University of Sydney

This book is a collection of plenary lectures, symposium presentations and additional invited papers from the Conference: Mites, Asthma and Domestic Design, Powerhouse Museum, dated 15th March 1993. It defines acceptable indoor humidity levels and ventilation in relation to location, seasonal temperatures, size of dwelling, family size and outdoor humidity. It concludes that for cases in Australia, dehumidification combined with increased ventilation would be ideal climate therapy.

Pholeros, P, ‘Housing Infrastructure Standards and Quality Control Mechanisms ’, Chapter 2, Keynote address two, Housing for Health, HealtHabitat

For areas where building control and health legislation does not legally apply to indigenous communities or where administrative processes are not capable of effectively overseeing housing and health standards, other infrastructure and processes are necessary. This extract mentions programs defined as creative and conventional mechanisms that explore and implement properly installed infrastructure for indigenous communities, to the best use of resources. A summary note by Paul about the Hosing for Health program outlines their methodologies for practice procedures, busting myths surmounting indigenous and housing, and collecting data to improve workmanship, design, thinking and supervision of construction and maintenance.

Law to lore, authorship, date and publisher unknown

Law to Lore is a checklist to assist prospective designers towards taking intellectual design actions in benefitting the health and well-being of those in Australian Indigenous Communities. It is designed to complement existing environmental and design strategies of HealtHabitat and work as a preliminary checklist to undertake before and during Housing for Health projects. It outlines the challenges designers may face and provides a framework as to how they may go about working with locals to create conditions in which all participants can actively contribute to the sustainment of healthy living.

P. Brokensha, 1975, ‘The Pitjantjatjara and Their Crafts ’, published by the Aboriginal Arts Board Australia Council, North Sydney, NSW

Introduction to the Pitjantjatjara people; traditional location & establishment on Missions and stations; return to traditional land in Tomkinson Ranges in 1970s; description of life there in 1975; hunting, gathering and use of local resources; continued dependence on Western goods, food and welfare payments; importance of the motor car; political organisation; disease (especially eye infections) western and traditional cures; importance of sacred sites; detailed description of technology & material welfare; spear throwers, spears, boomerangs, shields, clubs, digging sticks, tools, wooden bowls, spun hair and wool, use of gum and production of traditional and new items (carved animals) for Western demand and methods of sale.

Policies // Indicators // Manuals

September 2022, Nepal School Toilet Design Guide’, B. Bayley, published by Healthabitat, Sydney

A summation of over 10 years of work in toilet design, construction and maintenance. Includes practical information to inform design and construction of toilets in Nepalese schools. Includes work from Student sanitation studios, plumbing teams, design teams and local teams.

June 2007, Indigenous Housing Indicators 2005-06’, AIHW Indigenous Housing Series No. 2, published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra

Indigenous Housing Indicators 2005-06 is the Institute’s first national report on Indigenous housing information. The report includes national data on Indigenous community and State-Owned and Managed Indigenous Housing. Detailed information is presented on a range of Indigenous housing indicators including crowding, dwelling condition, affordability, connection to services, capital expenditure, whether they have a housing management plan, and what proportion of employees are undertaking training. Specifically mentioned are the 11 critical facets of FHBH healthy living practices, used as a measurable indicator to extrapolate data for indigenous housing conditions.

M. Anda, G. Bibra, F. De Boer, G. Boyle, M. Duell, C. Enthaler, Z. Hughes, G. James, L. Zappavigna, August 2006, ‘Scoping Study of Design and Thermal Performance in the Desert Built Environment ’, Report No. 14, The Desert Knowledge Cooperative Research Centre, Alice Springs

This report examines the internal climates of buildings in desert communities, their design and passive climate control characteristics and the energy used for active heating and cooling. The study investigates key methodologies surrounding desert design, the Building Code of Australia, modelling, and cultural sensitivities to determine the scope of knowledge gaps in the public domain.

June 2005, ‘Indigenous Housing Indicators 2003-04 ’, No. 1, published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra

Indigenous Housing Indicators 2003-04 is the Institute’s first national report on Indigenous housing information. The report includes national data on Indigenous community and State-Owned and Managed Indigenous Housing. Detailed information is presented on a range of Indigenous housing indicators including crowding, dwelling condition, affordability, connection to services, capital expenditure, whether they have a housing management plan, and what proportion of employees are undertaking training. Specifically mentioned are the FHBH healthy living standards as a measurable indicator for these conditions.

K. Clapham, August 2003, ‘Injury Prevention Activity Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Project Report ’, Volume 2: Programs, projects and Actions, published by the Department of Health and Ageing

This volume presents the overview, methodology and findings of the consultation phase of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Injury Prevention Activity Project. Key findings and their implications are informed by current understandings of factors contributed to success in projects and programs. Nineteen detailed case studies are explored, including; a successful account of Fixing Houses for Better Health (Case Study 6), with hard data showing improvements in various aspects of the houses related to safety and health.

June 2001, ‘Environmental Health Standards for Remote Communities in the Northern Territory ’, prepared by Territory Health Services, published by NTG Environmental Health Task

Acknowledgements are made to HealtHabitat for the curation and review of this paper.

AIHW, 2001, ‘Australia’s Welfare ’, Chapter 3: Assistance for Housing, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

An examination of the range of policies and programs surrounding housing assistance, including household types, characteristics of recipients of housing assistance, the nature of assistance, and government expenditure.

September 1999, ‘Design and Construction Maintenance of Indigenous Housing ’, A National Framework, Commonwealth, State and Territory Ministers’ Working Group on Indigenous Housing, published by the Commonwealth Department of Family and Community Services, ACT

The report on the National Framework outlines its structure consisting of four elements. These include; the national principles for the design, construction and maintenance of indigenous housing, State and territory remote area building standards, The National Indigenous Housing Guide, and review of the Framework.

AIHW, 1999, ‘Australia’s Welfare ’, Chapter 5: Assistance for Housing, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

A summary of the Commonwealth State Working Group on Indigenous Housing’s practical strategies for improving housing outcomes. The report outlines the Minister’s reform agenda to adequately resource and support the community housing sector and collect nationally consistent and comparable data with a high priority to the National Community Services Information Development Plan, The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Information Plan and development of a National Indigenous Housing Data Management Strategy framework.

MSHR, 2000, ‘Environmental Health Handbook: A Practical Manual for Remote Communities ’, Menzies School of Health Research, NT, Australia

The handbook is a three-part manual looking at community manage